Prevalence and characteristics of transesophageal echocardiography-related esophageal mucosal injury in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent pulmonary vein isolation

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for detecting thrombi in the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although TEE has a good safety profile, it was recently reported that TEE preceding PVI can cause esophageal mucosal injuries (EMIs). The exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of TEE-related EMI (TEE-EMI) among patients who underwent PVI for AF.